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AMPK Signaling Pathway

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Low Glucose,Heat Shock₁, Hypoxia,Ischemia Adiponectin Leptin Fatty Acid Synthesis Cholesterol Synthesis Fatty Acid Uptake Lipolysis Malony-CoA Glycolysis Glu4 Biogenesis Fatty Acid Oxidation Glycogen Synthesis Gluconeogenesis Protein Synthesis AICAR Exercise Insulin Receptor Insulin Gαq Ca 2+ AMP/ATP PLCβ CAMKK SREBF1 ACACA ACACB HMGCR LPL CD36 LIPE MUC1 CPT1 MEF2 GSK3 GS AMPKα AMPKβ AMPKγ P70S6K PFKFB3 MTOR MLST8 Raptor STK11 SIRT1 TSC2 RHEB TSC1 CREB CRTC2 PPARGC1A EIF4EBP1 PI3K AKT

Adenylate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key molecule in the regulation of bioenergy metabolism which exists as a heterotrimeric complex consist of an α-catalytic subunit, a β-regulatory subunit, and a γ-regulatory the composition of subunits. The N-terminus of the α-subunit contains a conserved Ser/Thr kinase domain, and a conserved threonine (Thr-172) site, the phosphorylation of which is required for its kinase activity. The major upstream phosphorylases are AMP-dependent STK11 and Ca2+-dependent CAMKK. AMPK is expressed in a variety of metabolically related organs and can be activated by various body stimuli, including cellular stress, exercise, hormones and substances that can affect cell metabolism. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that AMPK is essential for the body to keep glucose balance and is central to the study of diabetes and other metabolic-related diseases.

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