Apoptosis is a complex and active death, involving the activation, expression and regulation of a series of genes.
When apoptosis occurs, a series of apoptotic processes are programmed, such as phosphatidylserines valgus outside of the cell membrane, mitochondrial membrane ΔΨm changes, caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and so on.
Abnormal apoptotic mechanism can cause cells to lose control, which is closely related to the occurrence and development of many diseases such as tumors. Accurate detection of apoptotic cells is essential in the apoptosis study.
Elabscience® has successfully developed multiple apoptosis detection products based on the most commonly used principles.
It occurs at early apoptosis and runs through the whole cell apoptosis. Annexin V can bind to valgus phosphatidylserine under the action of Ca2+. Annexin V with DNA dyes such as PI and 7-AAD can distinguish living cells, early apoptotic cells, late apoptotic cells and dead cells.
The decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential is considered to be the earliest event in process of cell apoptosis. JC-1 dye exhibits different fluorescence emission due to different mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell apoptosis can be detected by detecting the change of cell membrane potential by JC-1 emission light.
When cells undergo apoptosis, a large number of viscous 3'-OH are produced by breakage of chromosomal DNA. Under the action of deoxyribonucleotide terminal transferase (TdT), the deoxyribonucleotides and derivatives of fluorescein, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase or biotin can be labeled to the 3'-terminal of DNA, so that apoptotic cells can be detected.
Caspase family plays a very important role in the process of cell apoptosis. Caspase-3 is a key executive molecule, which plays a role in many pathways of apoptotic signal transduction. Caspase exists in the cytoplasm in the form of zymogen and in the early stage of apoptosis, the caspase is activated which eventually leads to apoptosis.
Comparing to the conventional MTT method, Cell Counting Kit 8 (WST-8 / CCK8) is a more sensitive and non-radioactive colorimetric method for detecting the number of living cells in cell viability, proliferation or cytotoxicity test. Elabscience® developed an Enhanced CCK8 kit with much higher sensitivity and much wider linearity.
View Elabscience® Cell Viability/Proliferation/Cytotoxicity Detection Products
Cell cycle refers to the whole process from the end of one mitosis to the end of the next. DNA detection can be used to reflect the status of each phase of the cell cycle. Elabscience® applies the characteristics of DNA binding with fluorescent dyes (such as propidium iodide PI), then measure the DNA amount according to fluorescence intensity
View Elabscience® Cell Cycle Assay Kit