Revel the Mechanisms of Host Defense by Cross-regulation of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Responses


A recent Nature Immunology paper describes the epigenetic landscape that results from the integration of the inflammatory cytokines type I interferons and TNF.

This comprehensive epigenomics approach to the analysis of human macrophages showed that the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and type I interferons induced transcriptional cascades that altered chromatin states to broadly reprogram responses induced by TLR4. TNF tolerized genes encoding inflammatory molecules to prevent toxicity while preserving the induction of genes encoding antiviral and metabolic molecules. Type I interferons potentiated the inflammatory function of TNF by priming chromatin to prevent the silencing of target genes of the transcription factor NF-κB that encode inflammatory molecules. The priming of chromatin enabled robust transcriptional responses to weak upstream signals. Similar chromatin regulation occurred in human diseases. Our findings reveal that signaling crosstalk between interferons and TNF is integrated at the level of chromatin to reprogram inflammatory responses, and identify previously unknown functions and mechanisms of action of these cytokines.

We provide related ELISA  kits for you to start  far-reaching discoveries in this field.

Cat Number Product Name Reactivity Detection Range Sensitivity
E-EL-H1539 Human TLR4(Toll-Like Receptor 4) ELISA Kit Human 0.31~20 ng/mL 0.19 ng/mL
E-EL-H0109 Human TNF-α(Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) ELISA Kit Human 7.81~500 pg/mL 4.69 pg/mL
E-EL-H2306 Human TNF-β(Tumor Necrosis Factor Beta) ELISA Kit Human 15.63~1000 pg/mL 9.38 pg/mL
E-EL-H0085 Human IFN-β(Interferon Beta) ELISA Kit Human 31.25~2000 pg/mL 18.75 pg/mL
E-EL-H0108 Human IFN-γ(Interferon Gamma) ELISA Kit Human 15.63~1000 pg/mL 9.38 pg/mL
E-EL-H2532 Human IFN-α(Interferon Alpha) ELISA Kit Human 15.63~1000 pg/mL 9.38 pg/mL
E-EL-H1387 Human RANκL(Receptor Activator of  Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand) ELISA Kit Human 0.16~10 ng/mL 0.10 ng/mL
E-EL-H1388 Human NF-κB p65(Nuclear Factor Kappa B p65) ELISA Kit Human 0.16~10 ng/mL 0.10 ng/mL

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