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Phosphorylation as an effective way to regulate proteins is responsible for many intracellular processes such as cell growth and development, signal transduction and metabolism. Any disorders in the phosphorylation process are likely to drive the inappropriate activation or deactivation of the cellular processes, resulting in the break of the delicate balance in the cells. It is believed that many human diseases including different cancers have been associated with the abnormal phosphorylation of cellular proteins.
Phosphorylation of a protein is characterized by a reversible, enzymatically mediated mechanism. Upon reception of a signal, a protein is phosphorylated by the addition of a covalently bound phosphate group to its amino acid side chains in a few seconds.