Programmed cell death protein 1(PDCD1) is a single-pass type I membrane protein and contains 1 Ig-like V-type domain. PD-1 is a member of the extended CD28/CTLA-4 family of T cell regulators. PDCD1 inhibits the T-cell proliferation and production of related cytokines including IL-1, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ by suppressing the activation and transduction of PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, coligation of PDCD1 inhibits BCR-mediating signal by dephosphorylating key signal transducer. PDCD1 has been suggested to be involved in lymphocyte clonal selection and peripheral tolerance, and thus contributes to the prevention of autoimmune diseases. As a cell surface molecule, PDCD1 regulates the adaptive immune response. Engagement of PD-1 by its ligands PD-L1 or PD-L2 transduces a signal that inhibits T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and cytolytic function.