Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, the protein is expressed by activated endothelial cells and certain leukocytes (such as macrophages). IL-1 beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma induced the expression of VCAM-1. The human and mouse VCAM-1 proteins share approximately 76% amino acid similarity. Mouse VCAM-1 is Important in cell-cell recognition. it appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, and interacts with integrin alpha-4/beta-1 (ITGA4/ITGB1) on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction.