1. Can the E-BC-K030 GSH assay kit detect plant tissue samples? Can it detect the ethanol extract of leaves? If it can detect, how to determine the protein concentration?
1) It can detect plant tissue samples. It is recommended to treat the samples with PBS (0.01 M, pH 7.4) to carry out experiments, and then use BCA method to detect the total protein content in tissue homogenate, so as to calculate GSH content according to the calculation formula in the manual.
2) The ethanol extract of leaves cannot be detected.
2. E-BC-K035-M NO assay kit : ① There is no significant difference between OD value of human serum and blank. ② Standard OD value is high
1) Fresh serum is required for human serum, and the content of NO in human serum is relatively low, so little difference is normal.
2) The standard
OD value is related to the standard sample amount. Because the standard sample
amount of the kit is not given a fixed value, it cannot be compared with the
standard OD value in the standard label given in the manual. Regarding
operation: if the supernatant is not completely clarified after adding reagent
1 and reagent 2 for centrifugation, the OD value will also be high.
3. The samples in the manual are all fresh. If the samples are frozen, will it have large effect on the result? It is written in tissue sample process that it can be processed first and then placed at -80℃for testing within one month. If it is frozen first and then processed, does it affect?
1) It is better to use fresh samples for metabolism assay indicators. According to different indicators, frozen storage will have different effects on the results. For general enzyme samples, the enzyme activity after frozen storage will decrease to a certain extent compared with that of fresh samples. Some indicators, such as blood ammonia, will become higher after freezing.
2) The tissue sample should be used on the same day after homogenization. If it cannot be used on the same day, it should be placed at -80℃ for testing within one month. Freezing before treatment is better than freezing after treatment.
It should be
noted that the sample should not be frozen and thawed repeatedly.
4. Does the sample need special attention during detection?
1) For metabolism assay detection, the sample should be free from hemolysis, lipemia and jaundice. Tissue samples should be washed and dried before weighing.
2) After the sample is processed, it is best to detect it as soon as possible and keep it on the ice box for detection.
3) The sample needs to be clarified. If it is not clarified, the supernatant should be taken for detection after centrifugation (except for special indicators).
4) The sample value should be within the linear range of the kit. If it exceeds the linear range, it should be diluted before detection. If it is lower than the detection range, it should be detected after increasing the sample concentration.
5) For the
precautions of specific sample processing, please refer to the manual.
5. How to choose when an indicator involves multiple detection methods?
1) Detection principle.
2) Sensitivity and detection range.
3) Simplicity of operation.
4) The cost performance of the kit.
5) Whether the kit is in stock.
their own needs and sample value, select the appropriate detection methods
based on these five items.
6. Are some kits that can be detected with spectrophotometer that can be detected with microplate reader or automatic metabolism assay analyzer?
Each kit has a
prescribed instrument. It is recommended to follow the instructions in the
manual. Do not change the instrument at will.
7. The instructions require that experiments be carried out with a cuvette with 0.5 cm optical diameter. Can a cuvette be detected with 1 cm optical diameter?
it can be detected, but its accuracy, sensitivity, detection range, intra-assay
CV and inter-assay CV cannot be guaranteed.
8. What are the specifications for cuvettes?
cuvettes used in our kit are 1 cm optical diameter quartz cuvette
(liquid volume 3 mL), 0.5 cm optical diameter quartz cuvette (liquid volume 1.5
mL), and 1 mL quartz cuvette (optical diameter 1 cm), 1 cm optical diameter
glass cuvette (liquid volume 3 mL). It should be noted that glass cuvettes
cannot be used in the UV range (200 nm-400 nm).
9. What are the common specifications in the kit? What does the specification mean?
50 assays/48 samples: 50 assays means a total of 50 tests, 48 samples refer to 48 sample tubes that can be tested, and the remaining 2 tests are used for blank tubes and standard tubes/control tubes.
50 assays/24 samples: 50 assays means a total of 50 tests, 24 samples refer to 24 sample control tubes and 24 sample tubes, and the remaining 2 tests are used for blank tubes.
50 assays/36 samples: 50 assays means a total of 50 tests, 36 samples refer to 36 sample tubes that can be tested; the remaining 14 tests are used for standard curves.
100 assays/96 samples: 100 assays means a total of 100 tests, 96 samples refer to 96 sample tubes that can be tested, and the remaining 4 tests are used for blank tubes and standard tubes/control tubes.
100 assays/86 samples: 100 assays means a total of 100 tests, 86 samples refer to 86 sample tubes that can be tested; the remaining 14 tests are used for standard curves.
100 assays /42 samples: 100 assays means a total of 100 tests, 42 sample control tubes, 42 sample tubes, and the remaining 16 tests are used for standard curves.
96T：96T means 96 wells for colorimetric
10. Some homogenized medium of tissue homogenate is PBS, some is special homogenized medium. Is there any difference between different homogenized medium?
The function of
homogenized medium is to improve the extraction efficiency of indicators,
reduce the loss of indicators and protect the stability of indicators during
homogenate process. Try to process the sample with the homogenized
medium in the instructions.
11. Why are the parallel determination results of the same sample greatly different?
1) Sample reasons: uneven sample system, incomplete centrifugation during sample extraction, impurities and other reasons.
2) Instrument reasons: instability of the instrument results in large system error. Generally, the instrument needs to be preheated for 30 minutes before colorimetric detection.
reasons: due to unskilled operation, sample adding and liquid adding methods,
the parallel results differ greatly.
12. Why is there no difference between the sample tube and the control tube or blank tube, even lower than the control tube or blank tube?
1) If the blank value is too high, it may be the reason that the blank tube is polluted.
reasons: whether the sample content is very low, the sample size can be
appropriately increased or the sample concentration can be increased before the
experiment is carried out; whether the sample extraction is improper or not,
and whether the extraction is not sufficient, it is recommended to follow
the sample processing steps in the manual.
13. Why the color doesn’t appear?
1) The sample does not contain this substance.
2) Improper pretreatment: For example, in the enzyme activity extraction process, the sample is treated with reagents that inactivate the enzyme activity.
3) Improper preservation of samples.
storage of reagents: changes in components of the reagents, such as
reagents with enzymes, which inactivate the enzyme.
14. Can addition order of the reagent be changed?
Absolutely not. If the change is made, the reaction may not be carried out normally, leading to the failure of the experiment.
15. If the reagent is saved according to the preservation method in the manual. Can the reagent with precipitation still be used?
For details, please refer to the notes in the manual. If it is not stated in
the manual, please contact customer service to answer your questions.
16. How to mix the ingredients evenly as described in the manual?
1) The assay kit detected by spectrophotometer should be mixed evenly with vortex mixer.
2) The assay kit
for the detection of the microplate reader, vortex mixer, 96-well microplate
well mixer and multi-channel gun can all be used for mixing. For specific
operation, please refer to the operation steps in the manual.
17. Why tissues and cells need to be detected for protein concentration? Why serum doesn’t need to be detected?
The tissue and
cells should be homogenized first, and the protein released is different with
different degree of homogenate. We detect protein to correct the degree of
homogenate breakage. The serum itself can be directly detected without the need
for protein concentration correction.
18. If standard curve is required in the kit, can the standard curve provided in the manual of the kit be used for calculation instead of the standard curve?
No, because the experimental environment and personnel of each laboratory is different, and the standard curve is also different. In order to ensure the accuracy of the experimental results, it is recommended to make the standard curve as required.
19. How to choose metabolism assay kit?
determines the index and the sample amount to be detected according to his own
experimental scheme. If the same index corresponds to multiple kits, the
customer should choose the appropriate products according to laboratory instruments
(microplate reader, spectrophotometer and metabolism assay analyzer), and
calculates the number of products to be purchased according to the sample
20. Advantages and disadvantages of spectrophotometer, microplate reader and metabolism assay analyzer.
has low price and wide wavelength range (usually full wavelength
band), but the sample of the instrument is large in use and it is
inconvenient to operate. The microplate reader is simple and easy to operate,
but it is difficult to realize automation due to its low sensitivity, few
selectable wavelengths. The metabolism assay analyzer has the advantages of
small sample usage, simple operation, high degree of automation and accurate
results, but the instrument is expensive.
21. How to store the metabolism assay kit?
the kit, please read the reagent components in the manual carefully and
store them according to the instructions in the manual. For reagents
stored at -20℃, freeze-thaw
cycles should be reduced as much as possible, while for reagents stored in dark
place, make sure to avoid light during use, otherwise improper storage of
reagents may result in reagent failure and incorrect detection results.
22. What types of samples can be detected by metabolism assay kits?
principle of metabolism assay kit is based on chemical reaction and is not
limited by biological species and sample types in theory. However, the
extraction methods of some indexes in different samples are different.
Therefore, please refer to the manual for specific details.
23. Can metabolism assay kits detect frozen samples?
It is better to use fresh samples. According to different indexes, the frozen storage of samples will have different effects on the results. In general, the enzyme activity of the sample will gradually decrease or even completely deactivate with the prolonging of the freezing storage time. In some indexes, the test results of frozen samples are higher than those of fresh samples, such as blood ammonia.
The tissue homogenate sample should be detected on the same day. If it cannot be detected on the same day, it should be placed at -80℃ and detected as soon as possible. (In this case, customers are recommended to freeze the tissue directly instead of homogenizing the tissue)
Note: It is
forbidden to freeze and thaw the sample repeatedly.
24. Types of commonly used anticoagulants
1) EDTA: Its mechanism is to prevent blood coagulation by forming stable chelates with calcium ions in the aqueous phase. EDTA can affect the activity of some enzymes. Therefore, it is not recommended to use this anticoagulant when detecting the activity of target enzymes in blood samples.
2) Heparin is the best anticoagulant in blood chemical composition determination. Its anticoagulant mechanism is that it can inhibit the action between factors Ⅸa, Ⅷ and PF3 at low concentration together with anticoagulant II, and can strengthen antithrombin III to inactivate serine protease, thus preventing thrombin formation. It also inhibits the self-catalysis of thrombin and inhibits factor X. Generally, the anticoagulant dose with heparin is 10.0 ~ 12.5 IU/ml blood.
3) Citrate: Its anticoagulation mechanism is that Citric acid salt forms soluble chelate with calcium ions in blood, thus preventing blood coagulation.
Oxalate Monohydrate: Calcium oxalate precipitation is formed by Oxalate and
calcium ions in blood, so that it has no coagulation function. Blood samples
for determination of potassium and calcium content cannot be anticoagulated
with Potassium Oxalate Monohydrate.
25. Preparation of serum (plasma) samples
Both serum and plasma are blood liquid parts that do not contain visible components such as cells (including platelets). The main difference is that serum does not contain coagulation factors and platelets, while plasma contains coagulation factors. Their preparation methods are as follows:
1) Preparation of serum: Collect fresh blood and stand at 25℃ for 30 min to clot the blood. Then centrifuge at 2000 g for 15 min at 4℃. Take the serum (which is the upper light yellow clarified liquid layer) to preserve it on ice for detection.
2) Preparation of plasma: Take fresh blood into the tube which has anticoagulant (Heparin is used as anticoagulant), centrifuge at 1000-2000 g for 10 min at 4℃. Take the plasma (which is the upper light yellow clarified liquid layer, don't take white blood cells and platelets in the middle layer) to preserve it on ice for detection.
26. Cell collection method
Collect the cells and wash the cells with homogenization medium for 1~2 times. Centrifuge at 1000 g for 10 min to collect the cells. Add homogenization medium at a
ratio of cell number (106): homogenization medium (μL) =1: 200-400. Sonicate or mechanical homogenate. Centrifuge at 10000 g at 4 ℃ for 10 min, then take the supernatant and preserve it on ice for detection. If not detected on the same day, the cells sample (without homogenization) can be stored at -80℃ for a month.
Adherent cells: Discard the medium, wash the cells with PBS (0.01 M, pH 7.4) for 1~2 times. Scratch the cells with cell scraper, add 2-5 mL of PBS (0.01 M, pH 7.4) to collect the cell suspension. The post-treatment method refers to the suspension cell treatment method
27. Preparation of tissue sample
Take 0.02-1g fresh tissue to wash with homogenization medium at 2-8℃ to remove blood cells. Absorb the water with filter paper and weigh. Homogenize at the ratio of the volume of homogenized medium (2-8℃) (mL): the weight of the tissue (g) =9:1, then centrifuge the tissue homogenate for 10 min at 10000 g at 4℃. Take the supernatant to preserve it on ice for detection. Meanwhile, determine the protein concentration of supernatant (E-BC-K318-M, E-BC-K168-S, E-BC-K165-S). If not detected on the same day, the tissue sample (without homogenization) can be stored at -80℃ for a month.
28. Preparation of tissue or cell homogenate samples
Tissue or cell samples are collected and homogenized after adding homogenized medium. There are 4 homogenization methods to choose from.
1) Manual homogenization: pour the sample (including homogenized medium) into the glass homogenization tube, hold the homogenization tube in the left hand, insert the lower end into the container containing ice-water mixture, insert the tamping rod vertically into the homogenization tube in the right hand, and rotate and grind up and down for dozens of times (6-8 minutes) to homogenize the tissue.
2) Mechanical homogenization: put the weighed tissue into EP tube, add homogenized medium, and grind with tissue homogenate machine at 60 Hz and 90 s under the condition of ice-water bath to make tissue homogenate. The homogenate time of skin, muscle tissue and plant tissue can be appropriately prolonged.
3) Ultrasonic crushing: ultrasonic treatment with Ultrasonic generator at an amplitude of 14 μm for 30 s, crushing cells under the condition of ice-water bath; Or use ultrasonic crusher, 200 W, 2 s/ time, 3 s gap for treatment, the total time is 5 min.
freezing and thawing: applicable to cell samples, i.e. resuspension of cells
with hypotonic solution or double distilled water, followed by
"freeze-thaw-freeze" cycle of cell suspension for about 3 times. It
is worth noting that this operation method will affect the activity of some
enzymes. Therefore, it is not recommended to use this method when detecting the
activity of cell samples.
29. General requirements for sample detection of metabolism assay kits
1) Blood samples have no hemolysis, lipemia or jaundice. Tissue samples should be rinsed clean and dried before weighing.
2) After the sample is processed, it should be placed on the ice box for detection (detect as soon as possible)
3) The sample needs to be clarified. If it is not clarified, the supernatant should be taken for detection after centrifugation (except for special indexes).
4) The sample
value should be within the linear range of the kit. If it exceeds the
linear range, it should be diluted before detection. If it is lower than
the detection range, it should be detected by increasing the sample
concentration or increasing the sample volume.
30. When detecting the same reaction substance, why different kits select different wavelengths, such as E-BC-K030-M and E-BC-K030-S, both of which are DTNB reactions, why the detection wavelength is different? What is the difference between it and the 412nm wavelength in the market?
The rest of the
substances in the reaction system will interfere with the detection of reaction
products at a certain wavelength. The concentration of each substance in the
system is different, and the degree of interference will be different.
Therefore, according to the concentration of the product system, we will select
the most appropriate wavelength for detection.
31. Why is the detect data significantly different from literature reports or previous laboratory detection?
1) Influence of sample itself: The concentration or enzyme activity of the same index will change greatly in different samples, different development stages or different environments of the same sample.
2) Influence of determination method: For the same index, the detection results will be greatly different due to different determination methods. When comparing with the literature, attention should be paid to the detection method, cultivation and processing conditions, calculation formula, unit, unit definition, etc.
3) Influence of operation and equipment: The sampling habits of operators, homogenization degree and external detection environment will have great influence on the detection results. The detection limit and stability of different instruments and equipment will also have certain influence.4) When comparing the detection results of other documents, the data difference and change trend between the experimental group and the control group should be compared instead of the value of the detection results.